1. Good, M. et al., eds. Pain as Human Experience. 1992, University of California Press: Berkeley, p. 1.
2. Portenoy, R. K. and P. Lesage. Management of cancer pain. Lancet 1999; 353(9165): 1695-700.
3. Bonica, J. and J. D. Loeser. Medical evaluation of the patient with pain. In: Bonica J., C. Chapman and W. Fordyce, eds. The Management of Pain. 1990, Lea & Febiger: Philadelphia, pp. 563-79.
4. SUPPORT. A controlled trial to improve care for seriously ill hospitalized patients. The study to understand prognoses and preferences for outcomes and risks of treatments (SUPPORT). JAMA 1995; 274(20): 1591-8.
5. Won, A. et al. Correlates and management of nonmalignant pain in the nursing home. SAGE Study Group. Systematic assessment of geriatric drug use via epidemiology. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47(8): 936-42.
6. Grossman, S.A. et al. Correlation of patient and caregiver ratings of cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1991; 6(2): 53-7.
7. McDowell, I. and C. Newell. Measuring Health:A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires, 2nd ed. 1996, Oxford University Press: New York, pp. 355-79.
8. Weissman, D. E. and J. D. Haddox. opioid pseudoaddiction - An iatrogenic syndrome. Pain 1989; 36(3): 363-6.
9. Twycross, R. Pain Relief in Advanced Cancer. 1994, Churchill Livingstone: London, pp. 240, 288, 325, 353, 409-16.
10. Jenkins, C. A. and E. Bruera. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant analgesics in cancer patients. Palliat Med 1999; 13(3): 183-96.
11. Hudson, N., A. Taha, et al. Famotidine for healing and maintenance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastroduodenal ulceration. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 1817-22.
12. Hawkey, C. Cox-2 Inhibitors. Lancet 1999; 353: 307-14.
13. Silverstein, F. E. et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: The CLASS study: A randomized controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study. JAMA 2000; 284(10): 1247-55.
14. Porter, J. and H. Jick. Addiction rare in patients treated with narcotics [letter]. N Engl J Med 1980; 302(2): 123.
15. Joranson, D. E. et al. Trends in medical use and abuse of opioid analgesics. JAMA 2000; 283(13): 1710-4.
16. Allan, L. et al. Randomized crossover trial of transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine for treating chronic non-cancer pain. BMJ 2001; 322(7295): 1154-8.
17. Radbruch, L. et al. Constipation and the use of laxatives: A comparison between transdermal fentanyl and oral morphine. Palliat Med 2000; 14(2): 111-9.
18. Mercandante, S. The role of morphine glucuronides in cancer pain. Palliat Med 1999; 12: 182-9.
19. Abrahm, J. A Physician's Guide to Pain and Symptom Management in Cancer Patients. 2000, Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, pp. 135-6.
20. Grossman, S. A. et al. Morphine-induced venodilation in humans. Clinical Pharmacol Ther 1999; 60: 554-60.
21. Warner, M.A. et al. Narcotic-induced histamine release: A comparison of morphine, oxymorphone, and fentanyl infusions. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1991; 5(5): 481-4.
22. Doenicke, A. et al. Intravenous morphine and nalbuphine increase histamine and catecholamine release without accompanying hemodynamic changes. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995; 58: 81-9.
23. Katcher, J. and D. Walsh. opioid-induced itching: Morphine sulfate and hydromorphone hydrochloride. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999; 17(1): 70-2.
24. Broomhead, A. et al. Comparison of a once-a-day sustained-release morphine formulation with standard oral morphine treatment for cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997; 14(2): 63-73.
25. Angst, M.S. et al. Pharmacodynamics of orally administered sustained-release hydromorphone in humans. Anesthesiology 2001; 94(1): 63-73.
26. Hanks, G. and N.I. Cherny. opioid analgesic therapy. In: D. Doyle, G. Hanks, et al., eds. The Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. 1998, Oxford University Press: New York, pp. 331-5, 338-9.
27. Maddocks, I. et al. Attenuation of morphine-induced delirium in palliative care by substitution with infusion of oxycodone. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996; 12: 182-9.
28. Bruera, E. et al. Randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial comparing safety and efficacy of oral controlled-release oxycodone with controlled-release morphine in patients with cancer pain. J Clin Oncology 1998; 6: 3222-9.
29. Mercadante, S. et al. Switching from morphine to methadone to improve analgesia and tolerability in cancer patients: A prospective study. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19(11): 2898-904.
30. Pereira, J. et al. Equianalgesic dose ratios for opioids. A critical review and proposals for long-term dosing. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 22(2): 672-87.
31. Ripamonti, C. et al. Switching from morphine to oral methadone in treating cancer pain: What is the equianalgesic dose ratio? J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(10): 3216-21.
32. Southam, M. Transdermal fentanyl therapy: System design, pharmacokinetics and efficacy. Anti-Cancer Drugs 1995; 6(suppl 3): 26-34.
33. Grond, S. et al. High-dose tramadol in comparison to low-dose morphine for cancer pain relief. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999; 18(3): 174-9.
34. Levy, M.H. Pharmacologic treatment of cancer pain. New Engl J Med 1996; 335(15): 1124-32.
35. Ulens, C., P. Daenens, et al. Norpropoxyphene-induced cardiotoxicity is associated with changes in ion-selectivity and gating of HERG currents. Cardiovasc Res 1999; 44(3): 568-78.
36. Tremont-Lukats, I.W., C. Megeff, et al. Anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain syndromes: Mechanisms of action and place in therapy. Drugs 2000; 60(5): 1029-52.
37. Hemstreet, B. and M. Lapointe. Evidence for the use of gabapentin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Clin Ther 2001; 23(4): 520-31.
38. Garafalo, E. Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998; 280: 1831-6.
39. Kishore, A. and L. King. Fast Fact and Concept #49; Gabapentin for neuropathic pain. End of Life Care Education Project. http://www.eperc.mcw.edu/, 2001.
40. Miller, L.J. Gabapentin for treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35(4): 427-31.
41. Pande, A.C. et al. Placebo-controlled study of gabapentin treatment of panic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20(4): 467-71.
42. Hanks, G. and N.I. Cherny. opioid analgesic therapy. In: D. Doyle, G. Hanks, et al., eds. The Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. 1998, Oxford University Press: New York, p. 340.
43. Farrar, J. et al. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial for treatment of breakthrough pan in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 611-6.
44. Chandler, S. Nebulized opioids to treat dyspnea. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care 1999; 1999(16): 418-22.
45. Nelson, K. et al. A prospective, within-patient, crossover study of continous intravenous and subcutaneous morphine for chornic cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997; 13: 262-7.
46. Portenoy, R.K., ed. Cancer pain management: Update on breakthrough pain. Seminars in Oncology 1997; 24(suppl): 116.
47. Anderson, R. et al. Accuracy in equianalgesic dosing: Conversion dilemmas. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 21(5): 397-406.
48. Gordon, D.B. opioid equianalgesic calculations. Journal of Palliative Medicine 1999; 2(2): 209-18.
49. Ripamonti, C. et al. Equianalgesic dose/ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists in cancer pain: Comparison of two clinical experiences. Ann Oncol 1998; 9(1): 79-83.
50. Lawlor, P., K. Turner, et al. (1997). "Dose ratio between morphine and hydromorphone in patient with cancer pain: a retrospective study." Pain 72(1-2): 79-85.
<<< Previous [ Go Up ]
Palliative Care Perspectives
James L. Hallenbeck, M.D.
Copyright © 2003 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
The online version of this book is used with permission of the publisher and author on web sites affiliated with the Inter-Institutional Collaborating Network on End-of-life Care (IICN), sponsored by Growth House, Inc.